Linux:硬盘监控和分析工具:Smartctl

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Smartctl(S.M.A.R.T 自监控,分析和报告技术)是类Unix系统下实施SMART任务命令行套件或工具,它用于打印SMART自检错误日志,启用并禁用SMRAT自动检测,以及初始化设备自检。

Smartctl对于Linux物理服务器十分有用,在这些服务器上,可以对智能磁盘进行错误检查,并将与硬件RAID相关的磁盘信息摘录下来。

在本帖中,我们将讨论smartctl命令的一些实用样例。如果你的Linux上海没有安装smartctl,请按以下步骤来安装。

Linux:硬盘监控和分析工具:Smartctl

Linux:硬盘监控和分析工具:Smartctl

安装 Smartctl

对于 Ubuntu

$ sudo apt-get install smartmontools

对于 CentOS & RHEL

# yum install smartmontools

启动Smartctl服务

对于 Ubuntu

$ sudo /etc/init.d/smartmontools start

对于 CentOS & RHEL

# service smartd start ; chkconfig smartd on

样例

样例:1 检查磁盘的 Smart 功能是否启用

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -i /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF INFORMATION SECTION ===
Model Family:     Seagate Momentus 5400.6
Device Model:     ST9320325AS
Serial Number:    5VD2V59T
LU WWN Device Id: 5 000c50 020a37ec4
Firmware Version: 0002BSM1
User Capacity:    320,072,933,376 bytes [320 GB]
Sector Size:      512 bytes logical/physical
Rotation Rate:    5400 rpm
Device is:        In smartctl database [for details use: -P show]
ATA Version is:   ATA8-ACS T13/1699-D revision 4
SATA Version is:  SATA 2.6, 1.5 Gb/s
Local Time is:    Sun Nov 16 12:32:09 2014 IST
SMART support is: Available - device has SMART capability.
SMART support is: Enabled

这里‘/dev/sdb’是你的硬盘。上面输出中的最后两行显示了SMART功能已启用。

样例:2 启用磁盘的 Smart 功能

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -s on /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS SECTION ===
SMART Enabled.

样例:3 禁用磁盘的 Smart 功能

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -s off  /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF ENABLE/DISABLE COMMANDS SECTION ===
SMART Disabled. Use option -s with argument 'on' to enable it.

样例:4 显示磁盘的详细 Smart 信息

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -a /dev/sdb              // For IDE drive
root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -a -d ata /dev/sdb       // For SATA drive

样例:5 显示磁盘总体健康状况

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -H  /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART overall-health self-assessment test result: PASSED
Warning: This result is based on an Attribute check.
Please note the following marginal Attributes:
ID# ATTRIBUTE_NAME          FLAG     VALUE WORST THRESH TYPE      UPDATED  WHEN_FAILED RAW_VALUE
190 Airflow_Temperature_Cel 0x0022   067   045   045    Old_age   Always   In_the_past 33 (Min/Max 25/33)

样例:6 使用long和short选项测试硬盘

Long测试

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl --test=long /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF OFFLINE IMMEDIATE AND SELF-TEST SECTION ===
Sending command: "Execute SMART Extended self-test routine immediately in off-line mode".
Drive command "Execute SMART Extended self-test routine immediately in off-line mode" successful.
Testing has begun.
Please wait 102 minutes for test to complete.
Test will complete after Sun Nov 16 14:29:43 2014

Use smartctl -X to abort test.

或者,我们可以重定向测试输出到日志文件,就像下面这样

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl --test=long /dev/sdb > /var/log/long.text

Short测试

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl --test=short /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF OFFLINE IMMEDIATE AND SELF-TEST SECTION ===
Sending command: "Execute SMART Short self-test routine immediately in off-line mode".
Drive command "Execute SMART Short self-test routine immediately in off-line mode" successful.
Testing has begun.
Please wait 1 minutes for test to complete.
Test will complete after Sun Nov 16 12:51:45 2014

Use smartctl -X to abort test.

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl --test=short /dev/sdb > /var/log/short.text

注意:short测试将花费最多2分钟,而在long测试中没有时间限制,因为它会读取并验证磁盘的每个段。

样例:7 查看驱动器的自检结果

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -l selftest /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART Self-test log structure revision number 1
Num  Test_Description    Status                  Remaining  LifeTime(hours)  LBA_of_first_error
# 1  Short offline       Completed: read failure       90%       492         210841222
# 2  Extended offline    Completed: read failure       90%       492         210841222

样例:8 计算测试时间估值

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -c  /dev/sdb
smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
General SMART Values:
Offline data collection status:  (0x00)    Offline data collection activity
                    was never started.
                    Auto Offline Data Collection: Disabled.
Self-test execution status:      ( 121)    The previous self-test completed having
                    the read element of the test failed.
Total time to complete Offline 
data collection:         (    0) seconds.
Offline data collection
capabilities:              (0x73) SMART execute Offline immediate.
                    Auto Offline data collection on/off support.
                    Suspend Offline collection upon new
                    command.
                    No Offline surface scan supported.
                    Self-test supported.
                    Conveyance Self-test supported.
                    Selective Self-test supported.
SMART capabilities:            (0x0003)    Saves SMART data before entering
                    power-saving mode.
                    Supports SMART auto save timer.
Error logging capability:        (0x01)    Error logging supported.
                    General Purpose Logging supported.
Short self-test routine 
recommended polling time:      (   1) minutes.
Extended self-test routine
recommended polling time:      ( 102) minutes.
Conveyance self-test routine
recommended polling time:      (   2) minutes.
SCT capabilities:            (0x103b)    SCT Status supported.
                    SCT Error Recovery Control supported.
                    SCT Feature Control supported.
                    SCT Data Table supported.

样例:9 显示磁盘错误日志

root@linuxtechi:~# smartctl -l error  /dev/sdb

Sample Output

smartctl 6.2 2013-07-26 r3841 [x86_64-linux-3.13.0-32-generic] (local build)
Copyright (C) 2002-13, Bruce Allen, Christian Franke, www.smartmontools.org

=== START OF READ SMART DATA SECTION ===
SMART Error Log Version: 1
ATA Error Count: 5
    CR = Command Register [HEX]
    FR = Features Register [HEX]
    SC = Sector Count Register [HEX]
    SN = Sector Number Register [HEX]
    CL = Cylinder Low Register [HEX]
    CH = Cylinder High Register [HEX]
    DH = Device/Head Register [HEX]
    DC = Device Command Register [HEX]
    ER = Error register [HEX]
    ST = Status register [HEX]
Powered_Up_Time is measured from power on, and printed as
DDd+hh:mm:SS.sss where DD=days, hh=hours, mm=minutes,
SS=sec, and sss=millisec. It "wraps" after 49.710 days.

Commands leading to the command that caused the error were:
  CR FR SC SN CL CH DH DC   Powered_Up_Time  Command/Feature_Name
  -- -- -- -- -- -- -- --  ----------------  --------------------
  25 da 08 e7 e5 a5 4c 00      00:30:44.515  READ DMA EXT
  25 da 08 df e5 a5 4c 00      00:30:44.514  READ DMA EXT
  25 da 80 5f e5 a5 4c 00      00:30:44.502  READ DMA EXT
  25 da f0 5f e6 a5 4c 00      00:30:44.496  READ DMA EXT
  25 da 10 4f e6 a5 4c 00      00:30:44.383  READ DMA EXT

via: http://www.linuxtechi.com/smartctl-monitoring-analysis-tool-hard-drive/

作者:Pradeep Kumar 译者:GOLinux 校对:wxy

本文由 LCTT 原创翻译,Linux中国 荣誉推出

来源:https://linux.cn/article-4682-1.html

转载请注明:osetc.com » Linux:硬盘监控和分析工具:Smartctl

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