Linux:建立你自己的 CA 服务:OpenSSL 命令行 CA 操作快速指南

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这些是关于使用 OpenSSL 生成证书授权(CA)、中间证书授权和末端证书的速记随笔,内容包括 OCSP、CRL 和 CA 颁发者信息,以及指定颁发和有效期限等。

我们将建立我们自己的根 CA,我们将使用根 CA 来生成一个中间 CA 的例子,我们将使用中间 CA 来签署末端用户证书。

根 CA

创建根 CA 授权目录并切换到该目录:

mkdir ~/SSLCA/root/
cd ~/SSLCA/root/

为我们的根 CA 生成一个8192位长的 SHA-256 RSA 密钥:

openssl genrsa -aes256 -out rootca.key 8192

样例输出:

Generating RSA private key, 8192 bit long modulus
.........++
....................................................................................................................++
e is 65537 (0x10001)

如果你想要用密码保护该密钥,请添加 -aes256选项。

创建自签名根 CA 证书

1
ca.crt

;你需要为你的根 CA 提供一个身份:

openssl req -sha256 -new -x509 -days 1826 -key rootca.key -out rootca.crt

样例输出:

You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:NL
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Zuid Holland
Locality Name (eg, city) []:Rotterdam
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Sparkling Network
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Sparkling CA
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:Sparkling Root CA
Email Address []:

创建一个存储 CA 序列的文件:

touch certindex
echo 1000 > certserial
echo 1000 > crlnumber

放置 CA 配置文件,该文件持有 CRL 和 OCSP 末端的存根。

# vim ca.conf
[ ca ]
default_ca = myca

[ crl_ext ]
issuerAltName=issuer:copy 
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always

 [ myca ]
 dir = ./
 new_certs_dir = $dir
 unique_subject = no
 certificate = $dir/rootca.crt
 database = $dir/certindex
 private_key = $dir/rootca.key
 serial = $dir/certserial
 default_days = 730
 default_md = sha1
 policy = myca_policy
 x509_extensions = myca_extensions
 crlnumber = $dir/crlnumber
 default_crl_days = 730

 [ myca_policy ]
 commonName = supplied
 stateOrProvinceName = supplied
 countryName = optional
 emailAddress = optional
 organizationName = supplied
 organizationalUnitName = optional

 [ myca_extensions ]
 basicConstraints = critical,CA:TRUE
 keyUsage = critical,any
 subjectKeyIdentifier = hash
 authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid:always,issuer
 keyUsage = digitalSignature,keyEncipherment,cRLSign,keyCertSign
 extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth
 crlDistributionPoints = @crl_section
 subjectAltName  = @alt_names
 authorityInfoAccess = @ocsp_section

 [ v3_ca ]
 basicConstraints = critical,CA:TRUE,pathlen:0
 keyUsage = critical,any
 subjectKeyIdentifier = hash
 authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid:always,issuer
 keyUsage = digitalSignature,keyEncipherment,cRLSign,keyCertSign
 extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth
 crlDistributionPoints = @crl_section
 subjectAltName  = @alt_names
 authorityInfoAccess = @ocsp_section

 [alt_names]
 DNS.0 = Sparkling Intermidiate CA 1
 DNS.1 = Sparkling CA Intermidiate 1

 [crl_section]
 URI.0 = http://pki.sparklingca.com/SparklingRoot.crl
 URI.1 = http://pki.backup.com/SparklingRoot.crl

 [ocsp_section]
 caIssuers;URI.0 = http://pki.sparklingca.com/SparklingRoot.crt
 caIssuers;URI.1 = http://pki.backup.com/SparklingRoot.crt
 OCSP;URI.0 = http://pki.sparklingca.com/ocsp/
 OCSP;URI.1 = http://pki.backup.com/ocsp/

如果你需要设置某个特定的证书生效/过期日期,请添加以下内容到

1
[myca]

# format: YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
default_enddate = 20191222035911
default_startdate = 20181222035911

创建中间 CA

生成中间 CA (名为 intermediate1)的私钥:

openssl genrsa -out intermediate1.key 4096

生成中间 CA 的 CSR:

openssl req -new -sha256 -key intermediate1.key -out intermediate1.csr

样例输出:

You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:NL
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Zuid Holland
Locality Name (eg, city) []:Rotterdam
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Sparkling Network
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:Sparkling CA
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:Sparkling Intermediate CA
Email Address []:

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:

确保中间 CA 的主体(CN)和根 CA 不同。

用根 CA 签署中间 CA 的 CSR:

openssl ca -batch -config ca.conf -notext -in intermediate1.csr -out intermediate1.crt

样例输出:

Using configuration from ca.conf
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
The Subject's Distinguished Name is as follows
countryName           :PRINTABLE:'NL'
stateOrProvinceName   :ASN.1 12:'Zuid Holland'
localityName          :ASN.1 12:'Rotterdam'
organizationName      :ASN.1 12:'Sparkling Network'
organizationalUnitName:ASN.1 12:'Sparkling CA'
commonName            :ASN.1 12:'Sparkling Intermediate CA'
Certificate is to be certified until Mar 30 15:07:43 2017 GMT (730 days)

Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated

生成 CRL(同时采用 PEM 和 DER 格式):

openssl ca -config ca.conf -gencrl -keyfile rootca.key -cert rootca.crt -out rootca.crl.pem

openssl crl -inform PEM -in rootca.crl.pem -outform DER -out rootca.crl

每次使用该 CA 签署证书后,请生成 CRL。

如果你需要撤销该中间证书:

openssl ca -config ca.conf -revoke intermediate1.crt -keyfile rootca.key -cert rootca.crt

配置中间 CA

为该中间 CA 创建一个新文件夹,然后进入该文件夹:

mkdir ~/SSLCA/intermediate1/
cd ~/SSLCA/intermediate1/

从根 CA 拷贝中间证书和密钥:

cp ~/SSLCA/root/intermediate1.key ./
cp ~/SSLCA/root/intermediate1.crt ./

创建索引文件:

touch certindex
echo 1000 > certserial
echo 1000 > crlnumber

创建一个新的 ca.conf文件:

# vim ca.conf
[ ca ]
default_ca = myca

[ crl_ext ]
issuerAltName=issuer:copy 
authorityKeyIdentifier=keyid:always

 [ myca ]
 dir = ./
 new_certs_dir = $dir
 unique_subject = no
 certificate = $dir/intermediate1.crt
 database = $dir/certindex
 private_key = $dir/intermediate1.key
 serial = $dir/certserial
 default_days = 365
 default_md = sha1
 policy = myca_policy
 x509_extensions = myca_extensions
 crlnumber = $dir/crlnumber
 default_crl_days = 365

 [ myca_policy ]
 commonName = supplied
 stateOrProvinceName = supplied
 countryName = optional
 emailAddress = optional
 organizationName = supplied
 organizationalUnitName = optional

 [ myca_extensions ]
 basicConstraints = critical,CA:FALSE
 keyUsage = critical,any
 subjectKeyIdentifier = hash
 authorityKeyIdentifier = keyid:always,issuer
 keyUsage = digitalSignature,keyEncipherment
 extendedKeyUsage = serverAuth
 crlDistributionPoints = @crl_section
 subjectAltName  = @alt_names
 authorityInfoAccess = @ocsp_section

 [alt_names]
 DNS.0 = example.com
 DNS.1 = example.org

 [crl_section]
 URI.0 = http://pki.sparklingca.com/SparklingIntermidiate1.crl
 URI.1 = http://pki.backup.com/SparklingIntermidiate1.crl

 [ocsp_section]
 caIssuers;URI.0 = http://pki.sparklingca.com/SparklingIntermediate1.crt
 caIssuers;URI.1 = http://pki.backup.com/SparklingIntermediate1.crt
 OCSP;URI.0 = http://pki.sparklingca.com/ocsp/
 OCSP;URI.1 = http://pki.backup.com/ocsp/

修改 [alt_names]部分,添加你需要的主体备选名。如果你不需要主体备选名,请移除该部分包括

1
subjectAltName = @alt_names

的行。

如果你需要设置一个指定的生效/到期日期,请添加以下内容到

1
[myca]

# format: YYYYMMDDHHMMSS
default_enddate = 20191222035911
default_startdate = 20181222035911

生成一个空白 CRL(同时以 PEM 和 DER 格式):

openssl ca -config ca.conf -gencrl -keyfile rootca.key -cert rootca.crt -out rootca.crl.pem

openssl crl -inform PEM -in rootca.crl.pem -outform DER -out rootca.crl

生成末端用户证书

我们使用这个新的中间 CA 来生成一个末端用户证书,请重复以下操作来使用该 CA 为每个用户签署。

mkdir enduser-certs

生成末端用户的私钥:

openssl genrsa -out enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.key 4096

生成末端用户的 CSR:

openssl req -new -sha256 -key enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.key -out enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.csr

样例输出:

You are about to be asked to enter information that will be incorporated
into your certificate request.
What you are about to enter is what is called a Distinguished Name or a DN.
There are quite a few fields but you can leave some blank
For some fields there will be a default value,
If you enter '.', the field will be left blank.
-----
Country Name (2 letter code) [AU]:NL
State or Province Name (full name) [Some-State]:Noord Holland
Locality Name (eg, city) []:Amsterdam
Organization Name (eg, company) [Internet Widgits Pty Ltd]:Example Inc
Organizational Unit Name (eg, section) []:IT Dept
Common Name (e.g. server FQDN or YOUR name) []:example.com
Email Address []:

Please enter the following 'extra' attributes
to be sent with your certificate request
A challenge password []:
An optional company name []:

使用中间 CA 签署末端用户的 CSR:

openssl ca -batch -config ca.conf -notext -in enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.csr -out enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.crt

样例输出:

Using configuration from ca.conf
Check that the request matches the signature
Signature ok
The Subject's Distinguished Name is as follows
countryName           :PRINTABLE:'NL'
stateOrProvinceName   :ASN.1 12:'Noord Holland'
localityName          :ASN.1 12:'Amsterdam'
organizationName      :ASN.1 12:'Example Inc'
organizationalUnitName:ASN.1 12:'IT Dept'
commonName            :ASN.1 12:'example.com'
Certificate is to be certified until Mar 30 15:18:26 2016 GMT (365 days)

Write out database with 1 new entries
Data Base Updated

生成 CRL(同时以 PEM 和 DER 格式):

openssl ca -config ca.conf -gencrl -keyfile intermediate1.key -cert intermediate1.crt -out intermediate1.crl.pem

openssl crl -inform PEM -in intermediate1.crl.pem -outform DER -out intermediate1.crl

每次你使用该 CA 签署证书后,都需要生成 CRL。

如果你需要撤销该末端用户证书:

openssl ca -config ca.conf -revoke enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.crt -keyfile intermediate1.key -cert intermediate1.crt

样例输出:

Using configuration from ca.conf
Revoking Certificate 1000.
Data Base Updated

通过连接根证书和中间证书来创建证书链文件。

cat ../root/rootca.crt intermediate1.crt > enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.chain

发送以下文件给末端用户:

enduser-example.com.crt
enduser-example.com.key
enduser-example.com.chain

你也可以让末端用户提供他们自己的 CSR,而只发送给他们这个 .crt 文件。不要把它从服务器删除,否则你就不能撤销了。

校验证书

你可以对证书链使用以下命令来验证末端用户证书:

openssl verify -CAfile enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.chain enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.crt 
enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.crt: OK

你也可以针对 CRL 来验证。首先,将 PEM 格式的 CRL 和证书链相连接:

cat ../root/rootca.crt intermediate1.crt intermediate1.crl.pem > enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.crl.chain

验证证书:

openssl verify -crl_check -CAfile enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.crl.chain enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.crt

没有撤销时的输出:

enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.crt: OK

撤销后的输出如下:

enduser-certs/enduser-example.com.crt: CN = example.com, ST = Noord Holland, C = NL, O = Example Inc, OU = IT Dept
error 23 at 0 depth lookup:certificate revoked

via: https://raymii.org/s/tutorials/OpenSSL_command_line_Root_and_Intermediate_CA_including_OCSP_CRL%20and_revocation.html

作者:Remy van Elst 译者:GOLinux 校对:wxy

本文由 LCTT 原创翻译,Linux中国 荣誉推出

来源:https://linux.cn/article-5443-1.html

转载请注明:osetc.com » Linux:建立你自己的 CA 服务:OpenSSL 命令行 CA 操作快速指南

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